What is HANDLOOM
1. A handloom is a simple machine used for weaving. In a wooden vertical-shaft
looms, the heddles are fixed in place in the shaft. This loom is powered by hand. The
warp threads pass alternately through a heddle, and through a space between the
heddles (the shed), so that raising the shaft raises half the threads (those passing
through the heddles), and lowering the shaft lowers the same threads—the threads
passing through the spaces between the heddles remain in place.
2. It is a manual operating system.
3. Shedding is done by pressing the treadles pedal and picking and beating is done
4. Handlooms yield less production compared to power loom.
5. It can be operated at a slow speed only compared to the high speed of power looms.
6. Initial investment is very low compared to power loom.
Basically, there are two types of handloom:
1. Frame loom
2. Pit loom
These could be further divided in to fly the shuttle and throw shuttle looms.
IDENTIFICATION OF HANDLOOM PARTS:
– BASIC TEXTILES TERMS:
Yarn: A continuous strand of fibres/filament, twisted /non-twisted, it is basic raw
material for weaving.
Type of Yarns: single yarn, double or multi-fold yarn, spun yarn & filament yarn
Yarn count is the numerical expression of yarn, which defines its fineness or
coarseness. (Linear density).
Yarn count system:
Indirect system: English count (Ne), Worsted Count etc.
i.e. Higher the yarn number, finer the yarn.
Direct System: Tex, Denier
i.e. Higher the yarn number, Coarser the yarn.
Note: English (Ne) count system is commonly followed by India.
English Count: No. of Hanks of length 840 yds weighing in 1 pound
1lbs: 0.453 Kgs.
e.g. 40s Ne = 40 hanks of 840 yds weighs 1 lbs.
20s Ne = 20 hanks of 840 yds weigh 1 lbs.
Weaving is a process of fabric production in which two distinct sets of yarns are
interlaced at right angles to each other to form a fabric or cloth.
The lengthwise yarns are called the warp yarn and the widthwise yarns are called
the weft yarn.
Selvedge: The lengthwise running edges of woven fabric are known as
selvedges. It prevents unravelling of warp yarns.
Handloom Fabric Manufacturing Process – An Introduction
From ancient times till now, the handloom has been the pride of India’s traditional and cultural
brilliance. The dexterous Indian textile weavers since ancient times have been weaving
wonders. When we talk about handloom fabrics, we connect it with khadi fabrics and sarees. At
present, handloom fabrics are used as raw materials in various types of apparel products
making. This article walks you through the preparatory phases of handloom fabric production to
finished handloom fabric manufacturing processes.
The major processes involved the followings
1. Raw material selection
2. Raw material to yarn conversion
3. Dyeing of yarns
4. Bobbin winding and warping
5. Sizing of warp yarns
6. Dressing and winding of warp yarns
7. Attaching Warp Yarns on Loom
8. Weft yarn winding
9. Weaving fabric in a handloom
10. Final handloom products